With the development of high-power electric equipment, especially the rise in recent years, electric vehicles, lithium-ion battery packs have developed rapidly. With the growth of the energy density, the battery transport safety concern. As dangerous goods, in the “United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Model Regulations —” (hereinafter referred to as “Model Regulations”) on the international transport of lithium batteries are given clearly defined. Because of its characteristics, the transport of large lithium batteries different
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from the ordinary rules of lithium batteries. The author in accordance with the 18th Amendment in 2016 version of “Model Regulations” provisions, the characteristics of large international transport of lithium batteries rule interpretation.
1 International Transport of Lithium Batteries
As dangerous goods, in the “Model Regulations” for lithium-ion batteries and lithium batteries assigned to UN Nos. 4, respectively, UN3090, UN3091, UN3480 and UN3481, and clearly defines the type of battery as dangerous goods packaging using Class Ⅱ transport, and in accordance with the provisions of special provision 188 and 230, before shipping the battery must pass the “Model regulations” supporting “the United Nations recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods — test and standards Manual” (hereinafter referred to as “test and standards Manual” the latest version is version 5, Revision 1 and Revision 2) section 38.3 Chapter (hereinafter referred to as UN38. 3) related testing requirements. “Model Regulations” in the special provisions 310,376 and 377, respectively given cell sample, damaged or missing battery or battery pack, and transport requirements of the recalled batteries or battery pack.
The situation is more special, may not be suitable for UN38. 3 tests, but the corresponding packaging requirements, must meet the requirements of Part IV of Chapter 4.1, “Model Regulations.” 2 large battery and a large battery pack “Test and Standards Manual” will be defined as a single package battery electrochemical unit (one positive and one negative electrode by the composition), the external display by bipolar electric potential difference; the battery pack is composed of two or two more batteries connected together and equipped with the necessary equipment, such as housing, electrodes, identification and protection devices. Big batteries and large batteries were defined as the total mass of the battery is greater than 500 g total mass greater than 12 kg and a battery pack.
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Due to the larger mass when large battery or battery pack, the higher cost and other reasons, the difference compared with the small battery mainly during UN38. 3 tests, the difference between the requested number of samples, and the differences in test conditions. In terms of the number of samples in the lithium-ion battery pack UN38. 3 tests, the number of large battery pack is half the small battery pack.
2 For Battery Components
In the battery pack “test and standard Manual” did not give a clear definition, but described as UN38 3. 3: The battery pack is battery thereof. In the actual test, most of the so-called large batteries (kWh energy from a few to tens of kWh, or even greater), such as electric vehicle battery power, large-scale energy storage batteries and other energy storage device, due to the large energy , for the production process and safety considerations are often not directly from a single cell, but of first by battery comprising a battery module, and then through a series-parallel battery module, the composition of the final product. This by the battery module battery pack is called the lithium battery pack. In general, both the energy of the battery pack, the volume or mass, usually much larger than the large battery pack. For this feature, “Testing and Standards Manual” presents special testing requirements.
For fully charged, the battery cathode lithium metal battery pack of lithium metal on the total mass of not more than 500 g, or energy of not more than 6 200 Wh lithium-ion battery pack, the composition of these battery pack battery pack through the UN38. 3 Detection under the premise, just a group of battery components T3, T4 and T5 testing,
Lithium-ion battery pack but also for T7 tests. In addition, the lithium-ion battery pack before the test needs to be at least 25 cycles pretreatment. When the parameter is larger than the limit of the battery pack (500 g, 6 200 Wh), as long as the composition of the battery pack through the UN38. 3 test, and itself has a reliable monitoring system can prevent
Short-circuit the battery pack only, between composition of overcharging the battery pack, and a battery pack overheating, excessive discharge, etc., so that the battery pack can not require testing UN38. 3 in.
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3 Devices That contains Lithium-ion Battery Packs
With the development of related equipment, devices lithium ion battery packs the capacity of the continuous improvement in performance testing, device battery and separate battery is the same (but different UN number alone the battery UN3090 and UN3480, and device battery UN3091 and UN3481), and the special provision “Model regulations” 230 states: when device UN38 3 lithium battery test, where only for loading cells or batteries .
With emergency power supply, energy storage needs of a variety of lithium energy storage power emerged, some companies when they will be detected as a lithium battery to operate the device. Although there is no clear definition of such a device in the “Model Rules” and “Testing and Standards Manual”, but in the “Test and Standards Manual” 38. 3. 2.3, when the battery pack is defined, marked with “the main function is to provide another piece of equipment to a power source, usually referred to as” battery “,” battery module “or” battery pack “means, in the” Model regulations “and treated as a battery pack in this manual.” thus visible, the present situation of energy storage power, although it may have lighting, alarms and other auxiliary
Function, but it is still the main function is to provide energy, should remain as a battery or battery pack related operations, rather than the device battery.
In addition, the packaging requirements, the device battery, such as the use of appropriate materials strong outer containers and packaging, the container capacity and intended use, and the corresponding design of adequate strength, and the device can prevent accidental activation during transportation , without using class ⅱ packaging. When large equipment strong enough where the loading of a cell or battery when the device itself can be obtained the same level of protection, in the absence of the conditions of the packaging or on pallets for transport.
Vehicle lithium-ion battery packs is a special equipment lithium batteries, so the “Model Regulations” gives a special entry, UN3171 battery-powered vehicle or battery-powered equipment, special provisions 360 requirements, complete with lithium metal batteries or lithium ion battery-powered vehicle, shall UN3171 delivery; but UN3171 in electric equipment electric equipment does not include lithium.
In special provision 240 noted, lithium battery electric equipment should be used UN3091 and UN3481 delivery. In order to distinguish vehicles and equipment, “Model Regulations” given such a definition: means a self-propelled vehicle means for a carriage or more, or for carrying cargo. Examples of such vehicles are electric cars, motorcycles, scooters, three- or four-wheeled vehicles or motorcycles, electric bicycles, wheelchairs, boats and airplanes; and examples of equipment are lawnmowers, cleaning machines and model ships.
In addition, the lithium battery hybrid vehicles, special provision 240 states: UN3166 should be in accordance with the fuel cell, flammable gas powered vehicles (or a fuel cell, flammable liquid powered vehicles) for transport.
As the vehicle here already adequate protection to lithium, in terms of the vehicle’s battery does not provide, it must be UN38. 3 tests, and does not require special packaging. Although the “Model Regulations” not provided for this type of battery testing, but for security reasons, where possible, the recommendations still relevant Security testing.