BMS is short for battery management system, which is an electronic regulator that mainly designed to monitor and control the charging and discharging voltage and current of lifepo4 battery cells or other rechargeable cells .
For Battery packs that contains too many battery cells, since battery cells voltage and capacity is not performing the same all the time, that’s why BMS comes out. A BMS is a simple electronics system to measure and control voltage and current. and it will stop charging when the desired voltage is reached.
For example, in 10 cells pack, some battery cell may reach its full capacity already, while others might only 80% full. In case battery cell are already charged full, the BMS will shut down the power flow, in case there is no BMS, the already fulled charged battery cell will go on with the charging and thus will short its life or even cause heat or fire.
Some BMS can even monitor many factors such as temperature,humid,etc.. some can even send data to computer or App, so people can read the data on time.